(Class -12)

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Determine the resistance of a galvanometer by half deflection method and to find its figure of merit.

Determine the resistance of a galvanometer by half deflection method and to find its figure of merit.

Figure of Merit of a galvanometer: Objective To determine the resistance of a galvanometer by half deflection method and to find its figure of merit. Theory Galvanometer A galvanometer is a device used to detect feeble electric currents in a circuit. It consists of a coil suspended between the poles of a powerful magnet. As … Continue reading “Determine the resistance of a galvanometer by half deflection method and to find its figure of merit.”





Meter bridge- Law of combination of resistors

Meter bridge- Law of combination of resistors

Meter bridge- Law of combination of resistors Our Objective: To verify the laws of resistances in series and parallel. The Theory: Meter Bridge The metre bridge, consists of a one metre long wire of uniform cross sectional area, fixed on a wooden block. A scale is attached to the block. Two gaps are formed on it … Continue reading “Meter bridge- Law of combination of resistors”





Meter Bridge-Resistance of a wire Experiment

Meter Bridge-Resistance of a wire Experiment

Meter Bridge-Resistance of a wire Experiment Our Objective: To find the resistance of a given wire using a metre bridge and hence determine the specific resistance of its materials. Theory Wheatstone’s principle The metre bridge is operates under Wheatstone’s principle.  Here, four resistors P, Q, R, and S are connected to form the network ABCD. … Continue reading “Meter Bridge-Resistance of a wire Experiment”





Spectrometer- Prism

Spectrometer- Prism

Spectrometer- Prism Our Objective: (i) To study the angle of deviation (d) with angle of incidence (i) and to find the angle of minimum deviation (D) from i-d curve. (ii) To find the refractive index of the material of the prism using A and D. The Theory: Prism A prism is an optical element. It … Continue reading “Spectrometer- Prism”





To compare the emfs of two given primary cells using a potentiometer.

To compare the emfs of two given primary cells using a potentiometer.

The potentiometer- Comparison of emf: Theory Potentiometer Potentiometer is a device used to compare the e.m.f. (electromotive force) of two cells, to measure the internal resistance of a cell, and potential difference across a resistor. It consists of a long wire of uniform cross-sectional area and of 10 m in length. The material of wire … Continue reading “To compare the emfs of two given primary cells using a potentiometer.”





To determine the frequency of alternating current using a sonometer.

To determine the frequency of alternating current using a sonometer.

To determine the frequency of alternating current using a sonometer. AC Sonometer: A sonometer is an apparatus used to study the transverse vibrations of stretched strings. It is in the form of a hollow wooden rectangular box. On the wooden rectangular box there are two bridges and a pulley at one end.  A wire string … Continue reading “To determine the frequency of alternating current using a sonometer.”





To determine the resistance per cm of a given wire by plotting a graph of potential difference versus current, and hence to determine its resistivity.

To determine the resistance per cm of a given wire by plotting a graph of potential difference versus current, and hence to determine its resistivity.

Ohm’s Law Apparatus: To determine the resistance per cm of a given wire by plotting a graph of potential difference versus current, and hence to determine its resistivity. According to the Ohm’s law, “The current flowing through a conductor is directly proportional to the potential difference across its ends provided the physical conditions (temperature, dimensions, … Continue reading “To determine the resistance per cm of a given wire by plotting a graph of potential difference versus current, and hence to determine its resistivity.”





To draw the reverse characteristic curve of a Zener diode and to find its reverse breakdown voltage.

To draw the reverse characteristic curve of a Zener diode and to find its reverse breakdown voltage.

To draw the reverse characteristic curve of a Zener diode and to find its reverse breakdown voltage. Our Objective To draw the reverse characteristic curve of a Zener diode and to find its reverse breakdown voltage. The Theory: Zener diode A Zener diode is a heavily doped silicon crystal diode which allows current to flow … Continue reading “To draw the reverse characteristic curve of a Zener diode and to find its reverse breakdown voltage.”





To find the focal length of a convex mirror using a convex lens.

To find the focal length of a convex mirror using a convex lens.

Convex Mirror – Focal Length: The Theory: Convex mirror A convex mirror is a curved mirror in which the reflecting surface bulges towards the light source. Convex mirrors reflect light outwards; therefore they are not used to focus light. A convex mirror is also known as fish eye mirror or diverging mirror. The image formed … Continue reading “To find the focal length of a convex mirror using a convex lens.”





To find the focal length of the given concave mirror by

To find the focal length of the given concave mirror by

The Concave mirror – u-v method: Spherical mirrors It is a mirror which has the shape of a piece cut out of a spherical surface. Two types of spherical mirrors are; Concave mirror: Its inner concave surface reflects, and has polished outer surface. Convex mirror: Its outer convex surface reflects, and has polished inner surface. … Continue reading “To find the focal length of the given concave mirror by”





To measure the internal resistance of a given primary cell using potentiometer.

To measure the internal resistance of a given primary cell using potentiometer.

The Potentiometer-Internal resistance of a cell: Theory Potentiometer Potentiometer is a device used to measure the internal resistance of a cell, to compare the e.m.f. of two cells and potential difference across a resistor. It consists of a long wire of uniform cross sectional area and of 10 m in length. The material of wire … Continue reading “To measure the internal resistance of a given primary cell using potentiometer.”





To study the static characteristic of a transistor (Common Emitter Configuration)

To study the static characteristic of a transistor (Common Emitter Configuration)

Transistor characteristics: Our Objective: To study the static characteristic of a transistor (Common Emitter Configuration) The Theory: A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify or switch electronic signals and electrical power. It is composed of semiconductor material with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied … Continue reading “To study the static characteristic of a transistor (Common Emitter Configuration)”