Zener Diode Experiment, Physics instrument, Educational Scientific Instruments

Delta Modulation & Demodulation

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Delta Modulation & Demodulation

Delta Modulation & Demodulation



The modulation circuit consists of IC’s LM741 and CD4013. IC-LM741 functions as a comparative circuit and IC-CD4013 is an D-Flip-flop, functions to hold the quantized error signal during sampling signal.


The Demodulation circuit consists of IC’s CD4016. The IC CD4016 is an quad bilateral switch. The bilateral switch functions as to reconstruct the original signal. Here, same clock pulses is apply to the CD4013 and CD4016 IC’s.

Clock Generator :

  • Output Square 
  • Frequency 100KHZ 
  • Amplitude 10V 

Audio Oscillator:

  • Output Sine 
  • Frequency 200Hz-2KHz 
  • Amplitude 0-10V 
  • Power Supply : +5V, -5V/500mA
  • Dimension : 41.5cms x 31.5cms x 13.5cms.
  • Weight: 750gms (app.)
  • Power: 230V Ac,50Hz mains operated.


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The objective of this MAX Trainer is to introduce several basic concepts related to Delta Modulation (D.M). 2. To study the hardware implementation of Delta Modulation. 3. A hardware circuit for DM is built so that the DM waveforms can be observed on an oscilloscope. 4. Delta Modulation is a process of modulation where a train of fixed-width pulses is transmitted, whose polarity indicates whether the demodulator output should rise or fall at each pulse. The output is caused to rise or fall by a fixed step height at each pulse.  This trainer consists of the following features.